Bem-vindo ao meu pequeno canto escuro da web!  Aqui você encontrará um lindo (e, por vezes aleatório) variedade de guloseimas de todos os tipos de anime. Procurar, ver, fazer compras e desfrutar!


Anime  (Anime, uma pronúncia abreviado em japonês de "animação", pronunciado [anime] em japonês, mas normalmente / ænɨmeɪ / ou / ænɨmə / em Inglês.) é comumente definida como a animação, originários do Japão. A definição, por vezes, as mudanças dependendo do contexto. Em países de língua Inglês, anime também é conhecido como "animação japonesa".

Enquanto os primeiros animação japoneses conhecidos datas para 1917, original e muitos desenhos animados japoneses foram produzidos nas décadas seguintes, o estilo anime característica desenvolvida em 1960, principalmente com o trabalho de Osamu Tezuka e tornou-se conhecido fora do Japão em 1980. Anime, como a manga, tem um grande público no Japão e reconhecimento em todo o mundo. Os distribuidores podem liberar anime através das transmissões de televisão, diretamente ao vídeo, ou teatralmente, bem como em linha.

Ambos desenhados à mão e animado por computador anime existem. É usado em séries de televisão, filmes, vídeo, jogos de vídeo, comerciais, e lançamentos baseados na Internet, e representa mais, se não todos, gêneros de ficção. Anime ganhou popularidade no início de Leste e Sudeste da Ásia e tem atraído mais a popularidade recente no mundo ocidental.

História

Anime começou no início do século 20, quando cineastas japoneses experimentaram as técnicas de animação também foi pioneiro na França, Alemanha, os Estados Unidos, e na Rússia. O mais antigo conhecido na existência anime pela primeira vez em 1917 - Um clipe de dois minutos de um samurai tentando testar uma nova espada no seu alvo, só para sofrer uma derrota. Os pioneiros incluíram Shimokawa Oten, Jun'ichi Kouchi, e Kitayama Seitaro.

Até 1930 a animação tornou-se um formato alternativo de contar histórias para a indústria de ação ao vivo no Japão. Mas ele sofreu a concorrência dos produtores estrangeiros e muitos animadores, como Noburō Ofuji Yasuji Murata e ainda não trabalhou no corte mais barato cel animação, embora com resultados magistral. Outros criadores, Kenzo Masaoka, como Seo e Mitsuyo, no entanto fez grandes avanços na técnica de animação, especialmente com o aumento da ajuda de uma animação usando o governo na educação e na propaganda. O anime primeiro filme falado foi Chikara de Onna não Yo não Naka, produzido pela Masaoka em 1933. O primeiro longa-metragem animado foi Warriors Divino Momotaro do Mar dirigido por Seo em 1945 com o patrocínio da Marinha Imperial Japonesa.

O sucesso da The Walt Disney Company 1937 filme Branca de Neve e os Sete Anões influenciados animadores japoneses. Na década de 1960, artista de mangá e animação de Osamu Tezuka adaptado e simplificado muitos animação da Disney-técnicas para reduzir custos e limitar o número de quadros em produções. Ele destina-se isso como uma medida temporária para permitir-lhe fabricar o material em um cronograma apertado, com experiência de animação ao pessoal.

A década de 1970 viu um aumento do crescimento da popularidade do mangá - muitos deles mais tarde animada. O trabalho de Osamu Tezuka chamou especialmente a atenção: ele tem sido chamado de uma lenda "" eo "deus do mangá". Sua obra - e de outros pioneiros no campo - características inspiradas e gêneros que permanecem elementos fundamentais do anime de hoje. O gênero robô gigante (conhecido como "Mecha" fora do Japão.), por exemplo, tomou forma sob Tezuka, desenvolvidas no gênero Super Robot sob Go Nagai e outros, e foi revolucionado no final da década, por Yoshiyuki Tomino, que desenvolveu o robô gênero Real. Robô anime como o Gundam e A Dimension Fortress Macross Super séries se tornaram clássicos instantâneos na década de 1980, eo gênero robô do anime ainda é um dos mais comuns no Japão e no mundo de hoje. Na década de 1980, anime tornou-se mais aceita no mainstream no Japão (embora menos do que manga), e experimentou um boom na produção. Após algumas adaptações de sucesso do anime no mercado externo em 1980, animes ganharam maior aceitação nos mercados na década de 1990 e ainda mais na virada do século 21.

Terminologia

Japonês escrever o Inglês animação prazo" em katakana animações como (animēshon, pronunciado [anime ː ɕoɴ]), eo anime prazo (anime, pronunciado [anime] em japonês) surgiu na década de 1970 como uma abreviatura. Outros afirmam que a palavra deriva da expressão francesa desenhos animados.[4] Japonês-falantes usam ambas as formas originais e abreviada indiferentemente, mas a forma mais curta ocorre mais comumente.

A pronúncia de anime em japonês, [anime], difere significativamente do ænɪmeɪ / o Inglês Standard /, que tem diferentes vogais e estresse. (Em japonês cada um mora realiza esforço igual.) Tal como acontece com algumas outras palavras japonesas, tais como causa, Pokémon, e Kobo Abe, textos de Inglês, às vezes mágica anime como animados (como em francês), com um acento agudo sobre o final e, para alertar o leitor a pronunciar a letra, para não deixá-lo em silêncio como ortografia Inglês pode sugerir.

uso da palavra

No Japão, o termo anime não especifica a nação uma animação de origem ou de estilo; vez, ele serve como um cobertor para se referir a todas as formas de animação de todo o mundo. dicionários do idioma Inglês definir anime como "um estilo japonês de animação de cinema" ou como "um estilo de animação desenvolvido no Japão".

Os trabalhos não-japoneses que emprestam estilização do anime são comumente referido como "anime-influenciado animação" mas não é incomum para um espectador que não conhece o país de origem desse material para se referir a ela simplesmente como "anime". Alguns resultados trabalhos de co-produções com empresas não-japonesas, como a maioria dos Rankin animado tradicional / Bass obras, Cartoon Network e produção em série IG IGPX ou Oban Star-Racers; diferentes telespectadores podem ou não considerar estes anime.

No Reino Unido, lojas de vídeo muitos classificar todos os vídeos de conteúdo adulto animado no Anime "" secção por conveniência, independentemente de eles mostram semelhanças estilísticas a animação japonesa. Nenhuma evidência sugere que isso levou a qualquer alteração no uso da palavra.[carece de fontes?]

Em Inglês, anime, quando usado como um substantivo comum, normalmente funciona como um substantivo em massa (por exemplo: "Você vai assistir anime?", "Quanto anime você coletou?"). Contudo, no uso casual a palavra também aparece como um substantivo contagem. Anime também pode ser usado como um adjetivo ou substantivo supletivo classificador ("O anime Guyver é diferente do filme Guyver").

Sinônimos

Inglês-falantes ocasionalmente se referem ao anime como "Japanimation", mas este termo caiu em desuso. "Japanimation" viu a maioria de uso durante os anos 1970 e 1980, mas o anime "prazo" suplantado em meados da década de 1990 como o material se tornou mais conhecido nos países de língua Inglês. Em geral, Agora, o termo só aparece em contextos nostálgicos. Desde que "anime" não identifica o país de origem japonesa no uso, "Japanimation" is used to distinguish Japanese work from that of the rest of the world.

No Japão, "manga" can refer to both animation and comics. Among English speakers, "manga" has the stricter meaning of "Japanese comics", in parallel to the usage of "anime" in and outside of Japan. The term "ani-manga" is used to describe comics produced from animation cels.

Visual characteristics

Many commentators refer to anime as an art form. As a visual medium, it can emphasize visual styles. The styles can vary from artist to artist or from studio to studio. Some titles make extensive use of common stylization: FLCL, por exemplo, has a reputation for wild, exaggerated stylization. Other titles use different methods: Only Yesterday ou Jin-Roh take much more realistic approaches, featuring few stylistic exaggerations; Pokémon uses drawings which specifically do not distinguish the nationality of characters.

While different titles and different artists have their own artistic styles, many stylistic elements have become so common that people describe them as definitive of anime in general. Contudo, this does not mean that all modern anime share one strict, common art-style. Many anime have a very different art style from what would commonly be called "anime style", yet fans still use the word "anime" to refer to these titles. Generally, the most common form of anime drawings include "exaggerated physical features such as large eyes, big hair and elongated limbsand dramatically shaped speech bubbles, speed lines and onomatopoeic, exclamatory typography."

The influences of Japanese calligraphy and Japanese painting also characterize linear qualities of the anime style. The round ink brush traditionally used for writing kanji and for painting, produces a stroke of widely varying thickness.

Anime also tends to borrow many elements from manga, including text in the background and panel layouts. Por exemplo, an opening may employ manga panels to tell the story, or to dramatize a point for humorous effect. See for example the anime Kare Kano.

Character design
Proportions

Body proportions emulated in anime come from proportions of the human body. The height of the head is considered by the artist as the base unit of proportion. Head heights can vary as long as the remainder of the body remains proportional. Most anime characters are about seven to eight heads tall, and extreme heights are set around nine heads tall.

Variations to proportion can be modded by the artist. Super-deformed characters feature a non-proportionally small body compared to the head. Sometimes specific body parts, like legs, are shortened or elongated for added emphasis. Most super deformed characters are two to four heads tall. Some anime works like Crayon Shin-chan completely disregard these proportions, such that they resemble Western cartoons. For exaggeration, certain body features are increased in proportion.

Eye styles

Many anime and manga characters feature large eyes. Osamu Tezuka, who is believed to have been the first to use this technique, was inspired by the exaggerated features of American cartoon characters such as Betty Boop, Mickey Mouse, and Disney’s Bambi. Tezuka found that large eyes style allowed his characters to show emotions distinctly. When Tezuka began drawing Ribbon no Kishi, the first manga specifically targeted at young girls, Tezuka further exaggerated the size of the characterseyes. Indeed, through Ribbon no Kishi, Tezuka set a stylistic template that later shōjo artists tended to follow.

Coloring is added to give eyes, particularly to the cornea, some depth. The depth is accomplished by applying variable color shading. Generally, a mixture of a light shade, the tone color, and a dark shade is used. Cultural anthropologist Matt Thorn argues that Japanese animators and audiences do not perceive such stylized eyes as inherently more or less foreign.

Contudo, not all anime have large eyes. Por exemplo, some of the work of Hayao Miyazaki and Toshiro Kawamoto are known for having realistically proportioned eyes, as well as realistic hair colors on their characters. In addition many other productions also have been known to use smaller eyes. This design tends to have more resemblance to traditional Japanese art. Some characters have even smaller eyes, where simple black dots are used. Contudo, many western audiences associate anime with large detailed eyes.

Facial expressions

Anime characters may employ a variety of predetermined facial expressions to denote moods and thoughts. These techniques are often different in form than their counterparts in western animation, and they include a fixed iconography that’s used as shorthand for certain emotions and moods.

There are a number of other stylistic elements that are common to conventional anime as well but more often used in comedies. Characters that are shocked or surprised will perform a "face fault", in which they display an extremely exaggerated expression. Angry characters may exhibit a "vein" or "stress mark" effect, where lines representing bulging veins will appear on their forehead. Angry women will sometimes summon a mallet from nowhere and strike another character with it, mainly for the sake of slapstick comedy. Male characters will develop a bloody nose around their female love interests (typically to indicate arousal, which is a play on an old wivestale).[35] Embarrassed or stressed characters either produce a massive sweat-drop (which has become one of the most widely recognized motifs of conventional anime) or produce a visibly red blush or set of parallel (sometimes squiggly) lines beneath the eyes, especially as a manifestation of repressed romantic feelings. Characters who want to childishly taunt someone may pull an akanbe face (by pulling an eyelid down with a finger to expose the red underside). Characters may also have large "X" eyes to show a knockout, or in some cases, even illness. This is typically used for comedic purposes.

Animation technique

Like all animation, the production processes of storyboarding, voice acting, character design, cel production and so on still apply. With improvements in computer technology, computer animation increased the efficiency of the whole production process.

Anime is often considered a form of limited animation. That means that stylistically, even in bigger productions the conventions of limited animation are used to fool the eye into thinking there is more movement than there is. Many of the techniques used are comprised with cost-cutting measures while working under a set budget.

Anime scenes place emphasis on achieving three-dimensional views. Backgrounds depict the scenesatmosphere. Por exemplo, anime often puts emphasis on changing seasons, as can be seen in numerous anime, such as Tenchi Muyo!. Sometimes actual settings have been duplicated into an anime. The backgrounds for the Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya are based on various locations within the suburb of Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan.

Camera angles, camera movement, and lighting play an important role in scenes. Directors often have the discretion of determining viewing angles for scenes, particularly regarding backgrounds. In addition, camera angles show perspective. Directors can also choose camera effects within cinematography, such as panning, zooming, facial closeup, and panoramic.

The large majority of anime uses traditional animation, which better allows for division of labor, pose to pose approach and checking of drawings before they are shot – practices favoured by the anime industry. Other mediums are mostly limited to independently made short films, examples of which are the silhouette and other cutout animation of Noburō Ōfuji, the stop motion puppet animation of Tadahito Mochinaga, Kihachirō Kawamoto and Tomoyasu Murata and the computer animation of Satoshi Tomioka (most famously Usavich).

Distribution

While anime had entered markets beyond Japan in the 1960s, it grew as a major cultural export during its market expansion during the 1980s and 1990s. The anime market for the United States alone is "worth approximately $4.35 billion, according to the Japan External Trade Organization". Anime has also had commercial success in Asia, Europe and Latin America, where anime has become more mainstream than in the United States. Por exemplo, the Saint Seiya video game was released in Europe due to the popularity of the show even years after the series has been off-air.

Anime distribution companies handled the licensing and distribution of anime outside Japan. Licensed anime is modified by distributors through dubbing into the language of the country and adding language subtitles to the Japanese language track. Using a similar global distribution pattern as Hollywood, the world is divided into five regions.

Some editing of cultural references may occur to better follow the references of the non-Japanese culture. Certain companies may remove any objectionable content, complying with domestic law. This editing process was far more prevalent in the past (e.g. Voltron), but its use has declined because of the demand for anime in its original form. This "light touch" approach to localization has favored viewers formerly unfamiliar with anime. The use of such methods is evident by the success of Naruto and Cartoon Network’s Adult Swim programming block, both of which employ minor edits. Robotech e Star Blazers were the earliest attempts to present anime (albeit still modified) to North American television audiences without harsh censoring for violence and mature themes.

With the advent of DVD, it became possible to include multiple language tracks into a simple product. This was not the case with VHS cassette, in which separate VHS media were used and with each VHS cassette priced the same as a single DVD. The "light touch" approach also applies to DVD releases as they often include both the dubbed audio and the original Japanese audio with subtitles, typically unedited. Anime edited for television is usually released on DVD "uncut", with all scenes intact.

Some fans add subtitles to anime on their own and distribute the episodes. These are known as fansubs. Often, people will collect these fansubs and upload them to websites which they also put advertisements on so as to earn money, which violates copyright laws in many countries. The ethical implications of distributing or watching fansubs are topics of much controversy even when fansub groups do not profit from their activities. Once the series has been licensed outside of Japan, fansub groups often cease distribution of their work. In one case, Media Factory Incorporated requested that no fansubs of their material be made, which was respected by the fansub community. In another instance, Bandai specifically thanked fansubbers for their role in helping to make The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya popular in the English speaking world.

The Internet has played a significant role in the exposure of anime beyond Japan. Prior to the 1990s, anime had limited exposure beyond Japan’s borders. Coincidentally, as the popularity of the Internet grew, so did interest in anime. Much of the fandom of anime grew through the Internet. The combination of internet communities and increasing amounts of anime material, from video to images, helped spur the growth of fandom. As the Internet gained more widespread use, Internet advertising revenues grew from 1.6 billion yen to over 180 billion yen between 1995 e 2005.

Broadcasting

TV networks regularly broadcast anime programming. No Japão, major national TV networks, such as TV Tokyo broadcast anime regularly. Smaller regional stations broadcast anime under the UHF. In the United States, cable TV channels such as Cartoon Network, Disney, Syfy, and others dedicate some of their timeslots to anime. Some, such as the Anime Network and the FUNimation Channel, specifically show anime. Sony-based Animax and Disney’s Jetix channel broadcast anime within many countries in the world. AnimeCentral solely broadcasts anime in the UK.

Influence on world culture

Anime has become commercially profitable in western countries, as early commercially successful western adaptations of anime, such as Astro Boy, have revealed. The phenomenal success of Nintendo’s multi-billion dollar Pokémon franchise was helped greatly by the spin-off anime series that, first broadcast in the late 1990s, is still running worldwide to this day. In doing so, anime has made significant impacts upon Western culture. Since the 19th century, many Westerners have expressed a particular interest towards Japan. Anime dramatically exposed more Westerners to the culture of Japan. Aside from anime, other facets of Japanese culture increased in popularity. Worldwide, the number of people studying Japanese increased. Dentro 1984, the Japanese Language Proficiency Test was devised to meet increasing demand. Anime-influenced animation refers to non-Japanese works of animation that emulate the visual style of anime. Most of these works are created by studios in the United States, Europe, and non-Japanese Asia; and they generally incorporate stylizations, methods, and gags described in anime physics, as in the case of Avatar: The Last Airbender. Often, production crews either are fans of anime or are required to view anime. Some creators cite anime as a source of inspiration with their own series. além disso, a French production team for Oban Star-Racers moved to Tokyo to collaborate with a Japanese production team from Hal Film Maker. Critics and the general anime fanbase do not consider them as anime.

Some American animated television-series have singled out anime styling with satirical intent, por exemplo South Park (with "Chinpokomon" and with "Good Times with Weapons"). South Park has a notable drawing style, itself parodied in "Brittle Bullet", the fifth episode of the anime FLCL, released several months after "Chinpokomon" aired. This intent on satirizing anime is the springboard for the basic premise of Kappa Mikey, a Nicktoons Network original cartoon. Even clichés normally found in anime are parodied in some series, such as Perfect Hair Forever. Anime conventions began to appear in the early 1990s, during the Anime boom, starting with Anime Expo, Animethon, Otakon, and JACON. Currently anime conventions are held annually in various cities across the Americas, Asia, and Europe. Many attendees participate in cosplay, where they dress up as anime characters. Além disso, guests from Japan ranging from artists, directors, and music groups are invited. In addition to anime conventions, anime clubs have become prevalent in colleges, high schools, and community centers as a way to publicly exhibit anime as well as broadening Japanese cultural understanding.

Anime and American audiences

The Japanese term otaku is used in America as a term for anime fans, more particularly the obsessive ones. The negative connotations associated with the word in Japan have disappeared in its American context, where it instead connotes the pride of the fans. Only in the recent decade or so has there been a more casual viewership outside the devoted otaku fan base, which can be attributed highly to technological advances. Além disso, shows like Pokémon e Dragon Ball Z provided a pivotal introduction of anime’s conventions, animation methods, and Shinto influences to many American children.

Ancient Japanese myths – often deriving from the animistic nature worship of Shinto – have influenced anime greatly, but most American audiences not accustomed to anime know very little of these foreign texts and customs. Por exemplo, an average American viewing the live-action TV show Hercules will be no stranger to the Greek myths and legends it is based on, while the same person watching the show Tenchi Muyo! might not understand that the pleated ropes wrapped around the "space trees" are influenced by the ancient legend of Amaterasu and Susano.

Random pics
Encontre-nos no Facebook
Anúncios do Google
Anúncios do Google